In the era of increasing Industrialization and urbanization, there is an increased demand for energy which is usually generated from fossil fuels. Also the fossil fuels are used in transportation. The use of fossil fuel leads to increased emission of greenhouse gases, enhanced pollution levels and planet warming. This ultimately results in climate change. Though there is increasingly use of solar energy but it is not sufficient to meet the energy demand as sunlight is only available for 5-6 hours in daytime. For rest of the energy we are dependent on fossil fuels. In order to save the planet, we need to completely shift to renewable energy sources for our use in homes, offices, vehicles for commuting and also for industrial use. Renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass or other solid wastes etc. can be used to harness energy without these harmful effects on our planet. These sources don’t emit carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases. The energy generated through these sources is considered to be clean and green energy.
According to a survey by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), traffic is responsible for 23 percent of all CO2 emissions worldwide. Electric vehicles (EVs) or Electromobility (e-mobility) is the use of electrically powered vehicles to counter that. Unlike gasoline and diesel cars, they don’t emit any CO2 when driven. The common feature of all of them is that they are fully or partly driven electrically, have a means of storing energy on board, and obtain their energy mainly from the power grid. Electric vehicles are quiet, efficient and low-emission and have mainly been used to date in cities, where they’re ideal for delivery services, taxis and car sharing. The future belongs to e-mobility. This technology ensures that eco-friendly, quiet and efficient vehicles will be on our roads. Yet, EVs are CO2-neutral in the full sense of the word only if the batteries and the electricity to power them are produced using renewable energies. Though, the future of EVs look promising, but there are still certain challenges to be overcome so that the many advantages of the electronic powerchain can be leveraged. As of today, short driving range, long charging times, high costs and poor charging infrastructure for batteries are the typical shortcomings of EVs.
To meet the challenges presented by use of EVs there is a need to develop superior and fast charging, high storage and longer lasting batteries by developing innovative and best in class technologies not only for storage devices but also for inverters and converters. Also there is a need to develop standardised protocols for battery life testing and lifetime prediction.
A microgrid is a self-sufficient energy system that serves a discrete geographic footprint, such as a university campus, hospital complex, business center, or neighborhood village. Within microgrids are one or more kinds of distributed energy (solar panels, wind turbines, biogas plants, combined heat & power, generators) that produce its power. In addition, many newer microgrids contain energy storage, typically from batteries. Some also now have electric vehicle charging stations. There is an urgent need to integrate all these components and develop an intelligent and self-sufficient microgrid system that can work independently of national grid.